World Minerals Reserves
L. David Roper
2 July, 2016
Every year the United States Geological Survey (USGS) publishes estimates of the world reserves and reserves base for many minerals.
- Reserves base: That part of an resouce that meet specified minimum physical and chemical criteria related to current extraction practices, including those for grade, quality, thickness and depth.It is the in-place demonstrated (measured plus indicated) resource from which reserves are estimated. It may encompass those parts of the resources that have a reasonable potential for becoming economically availale within planning horizons beyond thise that assume proven technology and current economics.
- Reserves: That part of the reserve base which could be economically extracted. It need not signify that extraction facilities are in place and operative. Includes only recoverable materials.
The USGS estimates from 1996 to 2009 for some of the minerals are graphed below, smoothed between years:
Iron Ore | Bauxite | Copper | Lead | Nickel | Lithium | Zinc | Cadmium | Tin | Manganese | Chromium | Antimony
Vanadium | Magnesium | Phosphate Rock | Barite | Cobalt | Tungsten | Molybdenum | Mercury | Titanium
Tellurium | Indium | Rare Earths | Silver | Gold | Helium