Using the Amaya Editor/Browser for XML/MathML
to Display and Use Mathematics on the Web

L. David Roper (

What is Amaya?

MathML is a subset of XML, which is a superset of HTML. In other words XML will eventually replace HTML and MathML will be the way to do mathematics in XML. Some useful web sites for learning about XML and MathML are:

Amaya is first an editor to create XML/MathML code to enable mathematics to be presented on World Wide Web (WWW) sites. See Actually, as I understand it, Amaya creates XHTML, a reformulation of HTML 4.01 in XML.

Second Amaya is a browser to enable mathematics to be seen on the WWW. The browser part is necessary because the standard browsers Netscape and Microsoft Internet Explorer do not allow XML/MathML to be seen on the WWW.

MathML has the capability of allowing math to be done as well as seen on the Internet. By "done" it is meant that the user not only sees the mathematics, but can also manipulate it in the many ways mathematics can be manipulated. This is refered to as putting the "content" as well as the symbols on the WWW. Amaya does not yet have the capability of doing math on the Internet.

There is a useful overview of Amaya at Some frequently asked questions about Amaya are available at An Introduction to Amaya is useful to read. There is a users manual at

Amaya was created by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), which distributes it free at The W3C's Math Home Page has some valuable information about MathML.

There are other ways to present math on the Internet.

I have decided to concentrate on using Amaya to put mathematics on the WWW for the following reasons:

Amaya as a Web Browser

Amaya has the basic browsers features, but not all features that the standard browsers have.

For a comparison of browsing versus editing see

The main deficiencies compared to the standard browsers are:

Amaya as an XML/MathML Editor

I have used Amaya to create a rather complicated mathematical physics XML/MathML document: You will need to have Amaya on your machine to view the mathematics in that document.

I will describe some of the good features I have found in Amaya and some of the problems I encountered.

Good Features of Amaya

Problems with Amaya

Special Features of Amaya