Gun Control: A Rational Approach

L. David Roper, http://www.roperld.com/personal/roperldavid.htm
08-Nov-2017

Message from a Responsible Gun Owner
U.S. Firearms Transaction Form
Firearms Background Check Procedure Policy Summary

Virginia Governor McAuliffe bans firearms in most state offices

A nation captive to The Gun

More Guns Do Not Stop More Crimes, Evidence Shows

Contents

Introduction

Commentaries abound about gun control using emotional and legal approaches. One approach to the topic I have not read is a rational approach. This is an attempt at such an approach.

Herein I mostly consider data for all deaths due to guns. I do consider mass shooting, school shootings, church shootings and gun deaths by age. I do not study suicides, homicides, and deaths according to ethnicity.

U.S. Constitution Second Amendment (15 December 1791)

"A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed."

1790s Guns

Ketland Pistol:

1795 Musket:

Since these are representative of the guns that were available in 1791 when the Second Amendment was passed, should only these types of guns be allowed for people to keep and bear arms? Or should modern bazookas, machine guns, grenade launchers, depleted-uranium-tipped-bulleted cannons, etc. be allowed in anyone's house or be allowed to be carried around?

Insurrection and Firearms

The second amendment probably was motivated to facilitate violent overthrow of despotic government by arming militia(s). The Supreme Court has ruled that owning firearms is independent of being in a militia, which is currently called the National Guard. The firepower of modern governments is too great to allow violent protest with firearms to succeed; instead, as seen many times around the world, mass citizen violence usually leads to chaos. Probably the only way to overthrow government without precipitating chaos is by non-violent protest, not firearms, as seen many times. Every modern example of citizens trying to overthrow despots by armed revolution has resulted in chaos: e.g., Iraq, Libya, and Syria. Several modern examples exist of citizens overthrowing despots by mostly non-violent protests: e.g., British India, Jim-Crow southern U.S. states; Soviet Union, South Africa, Tunisia and Egypt (twice).

Human Evolution

In ~200,000 of human evolution, guns have been available for humans to kill each other for only ~700 years and the extremely high killability of guns has only existed for ~115 years. That is not enough time for physical (including emotional) evolution to cause humans to use guns in such a way as to insure their survival. Humans have learned how to speed up social aspects of their evolution. We are capable of doing that with regard to our use of guns.

A Rational Approach to Gun Control

Of course, any approach has to account for the existence of the second amendment of the U.S. constitution. To change an amendment is an arduous task, so I will assume that it will remain in force as interpreted by the U.S. Supreme Court, and all gun-control measures must abide by it. The current Supreme Court has interpreted that the final phrase of the amendment is independent of the first phrase; a future Supreme Court may change that if carnage due to guns in the U.S. continues to grow.

A rational approach to gun control in designing gun laws might reduce the high death rate due to guns in the U.S.

Data fluctuate with time, but the death rate due to guns in the U.S. is at least three times higher than for any other developed nation; it is about 17 times more than for the United Kingdom and over 7 times more than for Australia, a nation that developed with a “wild west” mentality similar to ours. It is about 177 times more than for Japan.

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General Gun Data

Gun Data by Countries

Most developed countries of the world, except the United States, have learned how to use guns without compromising the lives of their citizens.

First 3 columns ordered by gun ownership. Last 3 columns ordered by gun deaths.
Country
Guns/100
Gun deaths /100,000/yr
Country
Guns/100
Gun deaths /100.,000/yr 
United States
88.8
10.64
United States 
88.8
10.64
Switzerland
45.7
2.91
Finland
29.1
3.64
Sweden
31.6
1.47
France
31.2
3.01
Norway
31.3
1.78
Austria
30.4
2.95
France
31.2
3.01
Switzerland
45.7
2.91
Canada
30.8
2.22
Belgium
17.2
2.42
Austria
30.4
2.95
Canada
30.8
2.22
Iceland
30.3
1.57
Israel
7.3
1.87
Germany
30.3
1.24
Norway
31.3
1.78
Finland
29.1
3.64
Portugal
8.5
1.77
New Zealand
22.6
1.45
Greece
22.5
1.64
Greece
22.5
1.64
Iceland
30.3
1.57
Belgium
17.2
2.42
Ireland
4.3
1.57
Australia
15
0.86
Sweden
31.6
1.47
Denmark
12
1.28
New Zealand 
22.6
1.45
Italy
11.9
1.28
Denmark
12
1.28
Spain
10.4
0.62
Italy
11.9
1.28
Portugal
8.5
1.77
Germany
30.3
1.24
Israel
7.3
1.87
Australia
15
0.86
United Kingdom
6.6
0.26
Spain
10.4
0.62
Ireland
4.3
1.57
Netherlands
3.9
0.46
Netherlands
3.9
0.46
United Kingdom
6.6
0.26
South Korea
1.1
0.06
Singapore
0.5
0.16
Japan
0.6
0.06
South Korea 
1.1
0.06
Singapore
0.5
0.16
Japan
0.6
0.06
Note: This has guns/100 not % households with guns.

The correlation between guns/100 and gun-deaths/100,000 is 0.888, very high!

 Data fluctuate with time, but the death rate due to guns in the U.S. is at least three times higher than for any other developed nation; it is about 17 times more than for the United Kingdom and over 7 times more than for Australia, a nation that developed with a “wild west” history similar to ours. It is about 177 times more than for Japan.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/12/03/one-map-shows-why-americas-gun-violence-is-so-much-worse-than-anywhere-else/

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Gun Laws by Countries

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overview_of_gun_laws_by_nation

United Kingdom

0.62 gun deaths/100,000

compared to
United States

10.64 gun deaths/100,000

 

According to an English rifle and gun club legal center, any person possessing a firearm in the U. K. must posses a Shotgun Certificate or a Firearm Certificate.
Machine guns, pepper spray, semi-automatic, and pump-action rifles, and any firearm that has a barrel less than 30 centimeters in length are prohibited.  

The only firearms that can be owned legally are shotguns, black powder weapons, manually-loaded cartridge pistols and manually-loaded center-fire rifles, all termed "Section 1" firearms.

To gain a firearm certificate, applicants must be over age 14, and must demonstrate they have satisfactory security and "good reason" to own a rifle. Applicants must declare all criminal convictions and name two references to support the application. Applications must be renewed every five years. 
The requirements are largely the same for a shotgun certificate, although the applicant doesn't need two references, only one counter-signatory — and there is no minimum age. 
Anyone convicted of a criminal offense can't even handle a gun for five years. If the sentence involved more than three years in prison, there is a lifetime ban. 

Canada

2.42 gun deaths/100,000

compared to
United States

10.64 gun deaths/100,000

 

There is no legal right to possess arms in Canada. It takes sixty days to buy a gun there, and there is mandatory licensing for gun owners. Gun owners pursuing a license must have third-party references, take a safety training course and pass a background check with a focus on mental, criminal and addiction histories.

Licensing agents are required to advise an applicant's spouse or next-of-kin prior to granting a license, and licenses are denied to applicants with any past history of domestic violence. Buyers in private sales of weapons must pass official background checks. 

Canadian civilians aren't allowed to possess automatic weapons, handguns with a barrel shorter than 10.5 cm or any modified handgun, rifle or shotgun. Most semi-automatic assault weapons are also banned. As a result of exemptions, several kinds of assault weapons are still legal in Canada, although this has been the source of some controversy.

     

Japan

0.06 gun deaths/100,000

compared to
United States

10.64 gun deaths/100,000

 

Japan's gun policies are notoriously strict. Civilians cannot possess handguns, automatic assault weapons, semi-automatic assault weapons, military rifles, or machine guns. Japanese civilians aren't even allowed to own swords.
Without a license, a Japanese citizen isn't even permitted to touch a firearm. Failure to follow this law can result in up to 10 years in prison. 
What is legal are hunting rifles and shotguns, but those can only be obtained after an exhaustive application process. An aspiring gun-toucher must first take an all-day class and pass both written and practical exams. Then, applicants are required to go to the hospital for a mental health test, and provide police with a medical certificate attesting their mental health and drug-free status. 

The police then investigate the applicants ;background, relatives and group affiliations. Involvement in some political or activist organizations is grounds for categorical denial of license application.

Only after all that can a Japanese citizen buy a gun. Even then, gun-owners are required to store the gun in a locker, store ammunition in a separate locked safe, and provide for the police a map of the location of the locker,

Gun owners must then submit to annual inspections of the rifle or shotguns and retake the shooting range class and written exam every three years. 

Australia

1.47 gun deaths/100,000

compared to
United States

10.64 gun deaths/100,000

Australia is a rare nation that has had a significant shift toward additional gun control in recent years. Following a 1996 shooting spree that left 35 Australians dead at the Port Arthur tourist location in Tasmania, the government launched a major overhaul of gun laws.
Pro-gun Conservative John Howard pushed through an ambitious gun control program. The laws banned all automatic and semi-automatic weapons and instituted strict licensing rules involving background checks and waiting periods for purchases.
The conservative government also instituted a buyback program, where people were paid for turning in newly illegal automatic and semi-automatic rifles; 650,000 weapons were voluntarily handed in and destroyed at a cost of roughly $359.6 million.
Today, Australians must demonstrate a justifiable need to have a gun, such as being a farmer or sport shooter. Australia doesn't have a full semi-automatic handgun ban and doesn't have any laws designed to keep guns away from the mentally ill. 
   

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Gun Data by U.S. States

U.S. households with guns:


http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2012/12/19/a-gun-ownership-renaissance/
http://www.gallup.com/poll/150353/self-reported-gun-ownership-highest-1993.aspx

Gun Deaths by U.S. States

Gun Deaths (2013)

State
Guns owned % House
State
Guns owned % House
State
Deaths /100,000
State
Deaths /100,000
WY
59.7
IN
39.1
AK
19.8
PA
11.2
AK
57.8
NE
38.6
LA
19.3
OH
11
MT
57.7
MI
38.4
MS
17.8
OR
11
SD
56.6
TX
35.9
AL
17.6
ME
10.9
WV
55.4
VA
35.1
AR
16.8
TX
10.6
AR
55.3
NM
34.8
MT
16.7
DE
10.3
ID
55.3
CO
34.7
WY
16.7
VA
10.2
MS
55.3
PA
34.7
OK
16.5
SD
10
AL
51.7
NV
33.8
NM
15.5
MD
9.7
ND
50.7
WA
33.1
TN
15.4
WI
9.7
KY
47.7
OH
32.4
SC
15.2
VT
9.2
WI
44.4
AZ
31.1
MO
14.4
NE
9
LA
44.1
NH
30
WV
14.3
DC
8.9
TN
43.9
DE
25.5
AZ
14.1
WA
8.7
UT
43.9
FL
24.5
ID
14.1
IL
8.6
IA
42.9
CA
21.3
NV
13.8
IA
8
OK
42.9
MD
21.3
KY
13.7
CA
7.7
SC
42.3
IL
20.2
IN
13
MN
7.6
KS
42.1
NY
18
GA
12.6
NH
6.4
VT
42
CT
16.7
UT
12.6
NJ
5.7
MN
41.7
RI
12.8
NC
12.1
RI
5.3
MO
41.7
MA
12.6
MI
12
CT
4.4
NC
41.3
NJ
12.3
FL
11.9
NY
4.2
ME
40.5
HI
6.7
ND
11.8
MA
3.1
GA
40.3
DC
3.6
CO
11.5
HI
2.6
OR
39.8
KS
11.4
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gun_violence_in_the_United_States_by_state
http://kff.org/other/state-indicator/firearms-death-rate-per-100000/

There is a very high correlation between percent household gun ownership and gun-deaths/100,000 by U.S. states: about +0.76.
There is a very high anti-correlation between gun-deaths/100,000 and the Democratic vote in the 2012 presidential election: about -0.66.

http://www.care2.com/causes/having-more-guns-doesnt-make-us-safer-4.html

U.S. Gun Deaths By Years

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Gun Deaths and Motor-Vehicle Deaths


Will there be a crossover in 2015? Autonomous cars, which are eminent, will greatly reduce motor-vehicle deaths.

U.S. Gun Deaths by Age


We are killing our young!

Pitts: Toddlers average one shooting a week.

Mass Shootings in U.S. 1984-2015

Year
1998
#
2000
#
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
Shootings/year
1
4
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
3
1
2
2
2
6
2
2
2
Deaths/Year
5
#
7
2
3
5
0
9
5
45
5
26
11
14
61
17
9
18
Injuries/year
10
#
0
#
0
9
0
7
5
25
16
36
5
12
70
3
23
9

The solid line in these 3 graphs in the linear trend.

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School Shootings in the U.S. 1980-2015

See the Appendix for a list of the school shootings since 1980 up to 1 October 2015.

Total shootings
0 deaths
1 death
2 deaths
3 deaths
4 deaths
5 deaths
6 deaths
7 deaths
8 deaths
>8 deaths
247
97
90
34
9
3
3
4
2
0
5
Total
0 injuries
1 injury
2 injuries
3 injuries
4 injuries
5 injuries
6 injuries
7 injuries
8 injuries
>8 injuries
247
99
59
36
19
7
4
4
3
1
13

1=1980-1989, 2=1990-1999, 3=2000-2004, 4=2005-2009, 5=2010. 6=2011, 7=2012, 8=2013, 9=2014:

Perhaps the projected reduction of school shootings for 2015 is due to enhanced security at schools.
2015 projection are for last 3 months.

Although the number of shootings appears to be down in 2015, the number of deaths and injuries are almost as large as previous years. Perhaps this is because larger clips are being used by the shooters.

http://mobile.nytimes.com/2014/02/28/opinion/when-may-i-shoot-a-student.html?post_id=1624120557_10206501136040201&_r=0

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Church Shootings in the U.S.

Number of Church Shootings 1980-2005

CA
IL
TX
NY
AZ
FL
PA
WI
OH
MI
AL
CO
GA
IN
NM
OK
AR
KS
LA
MS
NV
NC
OR
WA
KY
MN
MO
MT
TN
VT
VA
DC
17
15
13
12
8
7
6
6
5
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

In 2015 nine people were killed in a church in Charleston SC. Other recent deaths and injuries due to church shootings:

2008
TN
2
7
2012
WI
6
1
2014
KS
3
0
2014
CA
0
0
2015
CT
0
1
2015
SC
9
0

Homocides by Weapon Type and Age

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gun_violence_in_the_United_States

Homocides by handguns were about more than the sum of all other methods in 2004.

Children with Guns

U.S. Gun Deaths Compared to Terrorism Deaths

Note that, in 2001, gun deaths were 29,573 and terrorism deaths were 2990!

Source of Guns of Inmates

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Gun Laws by U.S. States

Handgun laws by state:

 
State
Permit to Purchase
Registration of Handguns
Licensing of Owners
1
Alabama
0
0
0
2
Alaska
0
0
0
3
Arizona
0
0
0
4
Arkansas
0
0
0
5
California
1
1
0
6
Colorado
0
0
0
7
Connecticut
1
0
1
8
Delaware
0
0
0
9
Florida
0
0
0
10
Georgia
0
0
0
11
Hawaii
1
1
0
12
Idaho
0
0
0
13
Illinois
1
0
1
14
Indiana
0
0
0
15
Iowa
1
0
0
16
Kansas
0
0
0
17
Kentucky
0
0
0
18
Louisiana
0
0
0
19
Maine
0
0
0
20
Maryland
1
1
1
21
Massachusetts
1
0
1
22
Michigan
1
1
0
23
Minnesota
1
0
0
24
Mississippi
0
0
0
25
Missouri
0
0
0
26
Montana
0
0
0
27
Nebraska
1
0
0
28
Nevada
0
0
0
29
New Hampshire
0
0
0
30
New Jersey
1
0
1
31
New Mexico
0
0
0
32
New York
1
1
1
33
North Carolina
1
0
0
34
North Dakota
0
0
0
35
Ohio
0
0
0
36
Oklahoma
0
0
0
37
Oregon
0
0
0
38
Pennsylvania
0
0
0
39
Rhode Island
0
0
0
40
South Carolina
0
0
0
41
South Dakota
0
0
0
42
Tennessee
0
0
0
43
Texas
0
0
0
44
Utah
0
0
0
45
Vermont
0
0
0
46
Virginia
0
0
0
47
Washington
0
0
0
48
West Virginia
0
0
0
49
Wisconsin
0
0
0
50
Wyoming
0
0
0
 
Sum
13
5
6

2013 U.S. States Gun-Laws Scorecard

State
Score
CA
A-
CT
A-
MD
A-
NJ
A-
NY
A-
MA
B+
IL
B
RI
B-
CO
C
MI
C
MN
C
PA
C
WA
C
DE
C-
IA
C-
WI
C-
OR
D+
NE
D
OH
D
VA
D
AL
D-
NH
D-
All states not listed have an F score.

Assigning numeric scores:

A+
A
A-
B+
B
B-
C+
C
C-
D+
D
D-
F+
F
F-
5
4.65
4.3
3.95
3.6
3.26
2.9
2.55
2.2
1.85
1.5
1.15
0.8
0.48
0

The correlation between gun deaths and gun-laws' scores is -0.53; that is, there is a high anti-correlation between gun deaths and gun-laws; better laws highly correlate with fewer gun deaths.

Calculating the correlation between gun deaths and states' vote for the Democratic candidate in the 2012 presidential election yields -0.65; that is, states that voted Democratic have by far fewer gun deaths. The correlation between gun laws' scores and the Democratic vote in the 2012 presidential election is +0.37, slightly positive.

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Partisan Views of Gun Proposals

Reasons People Want Guns

Brain is Hardwired to Snap

"From domestic violence to mass shootings, the news is full of stories of seemingly “normal” people suddenly going berserk. The easy availability of guns only compounds the problem."

Dangerous Scenarios

  1. You carry a gun so you can stop a person who is shooting at others. You are walking along and you hear gun shots coming from around the corner of a building. You run around the corner and see two people shooting at each other. At which one should you shoot? Would it depend on the color of the skin or the mode of dress or the sex of the two shooters? See http://www.nbcnews.com/id/41018893/ns/slate_com/t/armed-giffords-hero-nearly-shot-wrong-man/#.VhKdPHpVhBc
  2. You carry a gun so you can stop a person who is shooting at others. You are in the back of a crowded theater. You hear commotion and gun shots way down in front. You pull out your gun after you notice several people shooting guns down in front. Do you shoot all of the shooters you see? If you start shooting, will a person near you pull out a gun and shoot you?
  3. You here gunshots in a crowd ahead. You pull out your gun and rush ahead. A SWAT team member sees you with a gun and shoots you.
  4. You are at home and your gun is locked in a cabinet so your children can not get it. Some person rings your doorbell. When you open the door you are shot by the person.
  5. Your gun is kept in a drawer beside your bed. A neighbor child visiting your child finds your gun and accidentally shoots your child while playing with your gun.
  6. You keep a gun in your desk at work. You get in an argument with a co-worker at the next desk. You both pull out your guns and shoot each other.
  7. All citizens carry guns because they fear someone may shoot them. Many times large shootouts occur because of misunderstandings and many people are killed and injured.
  8. http://www.dailykos.com/story/2015/11/04/1444653/-Three-shot-in-a-Cracker-Barrel-restaurant-after-Florida-Man-s-concealed-gun-falls-out-of-holster?detail=email
  9. http://www.dailykos.com/stories/2016/1/12/1468755/-Ohio-man-shot-his-14-year-old-son-after-mistaking-him-for-an-intruder?detail=email
  10. What Bullets do to Bodies
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Logical Statements

Suggested Federal Gun Laws

  1. All future gun purchases can only occur after an extensive background check for the buyer. The purchased gun will be registered in the name of the purchaser with the gun's serial number recorded.
  2. There is a federally mandated waiting period after a background check has been made before a purchase can be completed, unless a court order specifies otherwise. During this waiting period, first-time gun buyers must take a minimal firearms safety course.
  3. A gun buyer must have an insurance policy for any injury due to that gun or deposit a fixed sum into a federal fund, similar to auto insurance.
  4. A gun can legally be transferred to another person only after the transferee has undergone the same background check as a gun purchaser.
  5. Certain rifles will be designated as hunting guns when registered and special conditions are placed on the use of hunting guns.
  6. No gun will be sold that can handle clips of more than five (5) bullets.
  7. Expanding bullets can be sold only to buyers with special federal permits.
  8. Since the Second Amendment states that gun ownership is for the purpose of a well regulated Militia and the well regulated Militia of the U.S. is the National Guard, all gun owners are subject to militia training and being called upon by the National Guard for service during national emergencies.
  9. Permits to carry a gun on a person or in a vehicle owned by a person will be granted only if federally stated rational reasons for doing so are met.
  10. All guns in houses with children in them are required to be locked in cabinets or have automatic locks (smart guns)

http://www.care2.com/causes/research-claims-three-federal-laws-could-dramatically-cut-gun-deaths.html

References

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Message from a Responsible Gun Owner

Appendix

School Shootings since 1980 up to 1 October 2015

Date
State
Deaths
Injuries
1
7/1/1980
AR
1
0
2
20/3/1980
TX
1
0
3
26/3/1980
MI
1
0
4
31/10/1980
AL
1
1
5
19/3/1982
NV
1
2
6
7/4/1982
CO
1
0
7
12/11/1982
MS
2
0
8
20/1/1983
MO
2
1
9
24/2/1984
CA
2
12
10
17/4/1984
WA
1
0
11
20/4/1984
MI
1
0
12
17/5/1984
IA
2
0
13
21/1/1985
KS
1
3
14
4/9/1985
VA
1
0
15
18/10/1985
MI
0
6
16
26/11/1985
WA
3
0
17
3/12/1985
NH
1
0
18
10/12/1985
CT
1
1
19
16/5/1986
WY
2
79
bomb
20
18/9/1986
CA
1
0
21
5/12/1986
MT
1
3
22
4/2/1987
CA
2
0
23
2/3/1987
MO
2
0
24
16/4/1987
MI
1
2
25
28/9/1987
IL
0
1
26
28/9/1987
TX
1
0
27
16/12/1987
FL
1
2
28
25/2/1988
RI
0
1
29
20/5/1988
IL
2
6
30
26/9/1988
SC
2
8
31
22/11/1988
TX
0
1
32
16/12/1988
VA
1
1
33
17/1/1989
CA
6
32
34
10/2/1989
UT
0
0
35
20/5/1990
TN
1
0
36
8/1/1991
TX
1
0
37
23/4/1991
CA
1
0
38
1/11/1991
IA
5
1
39
25/11/1991
NY
1
0
40
26/2/1992
NY
2
0
41
1/5/1992
CA
4
10
42
23/11/1992
NY
0
1
43
14/12/1992
MA
2
4
44
18/1/1993
KY
2
0
45
22/2/1993
CA
2
0
46
17/9/1993
WY
1
4
47
17/9/1993
IL
1
0
48
15/4/1993
MA
1
0
49
24/5/1993
PA
1
0
50
1/12/1993
WI
1
0
51
17/12/1993
MI
1
2
52
31/1/1994
WA
1
0
53
1/3/1994
MO
2
0
54
12/4/199
MT
1
0
55
7/11/1994
OH
1
4
56
12/1/1995
WA
0
2
57
29/9/1995
FL
1
0
58
12/10/1995
SC
2
1
59
15/11/1995
TN
2
1
60
19/1/1996
WA
1
0
61
2/2/1996
WA
3
1
62
15/8/1996
CA
3
0
63
26/8/1996
TX
2
0
64
17/9/1996
PA
1
2
65
25/9/1996
GA
1
2
66
19/2/1997
AK
2
2
67
1/10/1997
MS
3
7
68
27/11/1997
FL
1
0
69
1/12/1997
KY
3
5
70
15/12/1997
AR
0
2
71
24/3/1998
AR
5
10
72
24/4/1998
PA
1
3
73
19/5/1998
TN
1
0
74
21/5/1998
OR
4
23
75
15/6/1998
VA
0
2
76
10/12/1998
MI
1
0
77
16/4/1999
ID
0
0
78
20/4/1999
CO
15
21
Columbine HS
79
20/5/1999
GA
0
6
80
19/11/1999
NM
1
0
81
6/12/1999
OK
0
6
82
29/2/2000
MI
1
0
83
26/5/2000
FL
1
0
84
28/2/2000
AR
2
0
85
26/9/2000
LA
0
2
86
5/3/2001
CA
2
13
87
22/3/2001
PA
0
1
88
22/3/2001
CA
0
5
89
30/3/2001
IN
1
0
90
15/1/2002
NY
0
2
91
7/10/2002
MD
0
1
92
28/10/2002
AZ
4
0
93
24/2/2003
PA
2
0
94
9/5/2003
OH
1
2
95
24/9/2003
MN
2
0
96
2/2/2004
DC
1
0
97
9/2/2004
NY
0
1
98
7/5/2004
MD
0
4
99
1/10/2004
TN
0
1
100
21/3/2005
MN
10
7
Red Lake HS
101
13/9/2005
IL
0
1
102
8/11/2005
TN
1
2
103
23/2/2006
OR
0
1
104
14/3/2006
NV
0
1
105
24/8/2006
VT
1
0
106
30/8/2006
NC
0
2
107
27/9/2006
CO
2
0
108
29/9/2006
WI
1
0
109
2/10/2006
PA
6
3
110
12/12/2006
PA
1
0
111
3/1/2007
WA
1
0
112
16/4/2007
VA
33
25
Virginia Tech
113
10/10/2007
OH
1
4
114
4/2/2007
TN
0
1
115
8/2/2007
LA
3
0
116
11/2/2008
TN
0
1
117
12/2/2008
CA
1
0
118
14/2/2008
IL
6
21
N. Illinois Univ.
119
14/8/2008
WA
1
0
120
21/8/2008
TN
1
0
121
16/2/2008
MI
1
3
122
26/10/2008
AR
2
1
123
13/11/2008
FL
1
0
124
9/1/2009
IL
0
5
125
26/4/2009
VA
0
3
126
18/5/2009
MA
1
0
127
18/5/2009
LA
1
0
128
16/6/2009
CA
0
3
129
3/9/2009
CA
0
1
130
5/2/2010
AL
1
0
131
12/2/2010
AL
3
3
132
23/2/2010
CO
0
2
133
8/9/2010
MI
0
2
134
28/9/2010
TX
1
0
135
1/10/2010
CA
1
0
136
8/10/2010
CA
0
2
137
29/11/2010
WI
1
0
138
6/12/2010
CO
0
1
139
5/1/2011
NE
2
2
140
2/2/2011
CA
1
0
141
25/3/2011
IN
0
1
142
31/3/20112
TX
1
5
143
23/5/2011
HI
0
1
144
24/10/2011
NC
0
1
145
8/10/2011
VA
2
0
146
9/12/2011
TX
0
2
147
10/1/2012
TX
0
1
148
22/2/2012
WA
0
1
149
27/2/2012
OH
3
3
150
6/3/2012
FL
2
0
151
2/4/2012
CA
7
3
Oikos Univ.
152
26/5/2012
NC
1
0
153
16/8/2012
TN
0
2
154
27/8/2012
MD
0
1
155
7/9/2012
IL
0
0
156
6/10/2012
AL
1
0
157
31/10/2012
CA
0
4
158
10/12/2012
AK
1
0
159
14/12/2012
CT
28
2
Sandy Hook ES
160
7/1/2013
FL
1
0
161
10/1/2013
CA
0
2
162
15/1/2013
MO
0
2
163
15/1/2013
KY
3
0
164
16/1/2013
IL
1
0
165
22/1/2013
TX
0
3
166
31/1/2013
AZ
0
0
167
31/1/2013
GA
0
2
168
18/3/2013
FL
1
0
169
12/4/2013
VA
0
2
170
16/4/2013
LA
0
3
171
18/4/2013
MA
2
1
172
14/5/2013
AL
0
0
173
7/6/2013
CA
6
4
Santa Monica College
174
20/6/2013
FL
2
0
175
20/8/2013
GA
0
0
176
23/8/2013
MS
1
2
177
30/8/2013
NC
0
1
178
4/10/2013
FL
0
2
179
21/10/2013
NV
2
2
180
2/11/2013
NC
0
1
181
3/11/2013
GA
0
2
182
13/11/2013
PA
0
3
183
4/12/2002
FL
0
1
184
13/12/2013
CO
2
0
185
19/12/2013
CA
0
1
186
9/1/2014
TN
0
1
187
13/1/2014
CT
0
1
188
14/1/2014
NM
0
3
189
17/1/2014
PA
0
2
190
20/1/2014
PA
0
1
191
21/1/2014
IN
1
0
192
24/1/2014
SC
1
0
193
25/1/2014
CA
1
0
194
27/1/2014
IL
0
1
195
28/1/2014
HI
0
2
196
28/1/2014
TN
0
1
197
30/1/2014
FL
0
1
198
31/1/2014
IA
0
1
199
10/2/2014
NC
0
1
200
10/2/2014
OH
0
0
201
12/2/2014
CA
0
1
202
21/2/2014
CA
1
0
203
22/2/2014
GA
0
1
204
12/3/2014
FL
1
0
205
25/3/2014
GA
0
0
206
9/4/2014
NC
0
0
207
11/4/2014
MI
1
0
208
21/4/2014
IN
2
0
209
26/4/2014
AK
1
0
210
4/5/2014
GA
0
1
211
5/5/2014
GA
0
1
212
8/5/2014
GA
0
1
213
14/5/2014
CA
0
1
214
23/5/2014
CA
7
13
UC Santa Barbara
215
5/6/2014
WA
1
3
216
10/6/2014
OR
2
1
217
9/9/2014
FL
0
1
218
27/9/2014
IN
0
1
219
30/9/2014
NC
0
1
220
30/9/2014
KY
0
1
221
3/10/2014
GA
1
0
222
24/10/2014
WA
5
1
223
20/11/2014
FL
1
3
224
20/11/2014
FL
1
1
225
3/12/2014
AK
1
0
226
5/12/2014
OK
1
0
227
12/12/2014
OR
0
3
228
15/1/2015
WI
0
3
229
16/1/2015
FL
0
2
230
2/2/2015
MN
1
0
231
4/2/2015
MD
0
2
232
7/2/2015
SC
2
0
233
23/2/2015
FL
0
3
234
30/3/2015
MO
0
1
235
13/4/2015
NC
1
0
236
16/4/2015
LA
0
1
237
24/4/2015
NV
0
0
238
27/4/2015
WA
0
0
239
5/5/2015
GA
0
0
240
12/5/2015
AZ
1
0
241
12/5/2015
FL
0
2
242
24/5/2015
MI
0
7
243
27/8/2015
GA
1
0
244
3/9/2015
CA
1
2
245
14/9/2015
MS
1
0
246
30/09/2015
SD
0
1
247
1/10/2015
OR
10
9
Umpqua Community College
Sum:
346
557

Birth Control: A Rational Approach

http://www.roperld.com/personal/InterdisciplinaryStudies.htm

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