Electric Cars

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Table of Contents

Electric Cars. 1

Inexpensive Vehicles (<$15,000) 2

ZAP Xebra (Zero Air Pollution) 2

EC5 or Keystone Flyer 2

Neighborhood Electric Vehicles (NEV) 2

GEM (Global Electric Motor) (An NEV) 2

ZENN (Zero Emission No Noise) (An NEV) 3

G-Wiz. 4

Tiger Star Truck. 4

Moderately Expensive Vehicles (>$15,000 & <$30,000) 4

Tango T100. 4

Myers Motors NMG (No more Gas) 5

Buckshot Electric Pickup

Expensive Vehicles (>$30,000 & <$50,000) 5

Obvio 828E.. 5

Phoenix Sport Utility Truck.

Tango T200. 6

Th!nk City. 6

Very Expensive Vehicles (>$50,000) 7

Obvio 012E.. 7

Tesla. 8

Tango T600. 8

Batteries. 9

Books about Cars, Especially Electric. 9

Links. 9

Less Global-Warming Gases Emissions. 10

Less Pocket-Book Dollars Emissions. 10

 

Converting gasoline to electric

          Plug-In Motors

Inexpensive Vehicles (<$15,000)

ZAP Xebra (Zero Air Pollution)

http://www.ZAPworld.com

ZAP slide show

http://www.xebraworld.com

Review of ZAP Xebra PK (pickup)

http://www.roperld.com/science/ZAPElectricCars.htm

News articles about ZAP Xebra vehicles

40 mph top speed.

EC5 or Keystone Flyer

MotorSport Wholesalers

l

Keystone Flyer

Top speed 52 mph.

Are they real?

Neighborhood Electric Vehicles (NEV)

http://www.evfinder.com/NEVs.htm

http://www.electric-bikes.com/nev.htm

25 mph top speed.

Includes the Zenn and GEM listed above.

 

GEM (Global Electric Motor) (An NEV)

http://www.gemcar.com

ǂ°ǂ°

°

Brochure

25 mph top speed.

Special Edition

ZENN (Zero Emission No Noise) (An NEV)

http://www.zenncars.com

Press Release

Availability

Brochure

25 mph top speed.

G-Wiz

                        http://www.goingreen.co.uk

                        http://www.g-wiz.org.uk, a G-Wiz owners’ group

                        45 mph top speed

                        40 miles range

                        About $14,000

Tiger Star Truck

                                    http://www.tigertruck.com/electric/star/index.html

                                   

                                    48 volts, 5kW motor, 5-speed transmission, $13,999.

Moderately Expensive Vehicles (>$15,000 & <$30,000)

Tango T100

http://www.commutercars.com

 

·         Being designed

·         $18,700

·         0-60 in 7 seconds

·         Ό mile in 16 seconds

·         5-star NHTSA static rollover resistance rating

·         Fiberglass body

·         Front- or rear-wheel drive via two 50 kW electric hub motors

·         AC controller with 100 kW power

·         Regenerative braking with ABS

·         Dimensions: 39” wide, 8’ 5” long, 60” high, 2200 lbs

 

Myers Motors NMG (No more Gas)

http://www.myersmotors.com

၏°၏°

·         $24,900

·         156 Volts DC motor

·         30 mile range

·         70-75 mph

·         0-60 mph in 12.5 seconds

·         Seat: 1 person

 

Expensive Vehicles (>$30,000 & <$50,000

Obvio 828E

http://www.ZAPworld.com/ZAPWorld.aspx?id=386

"°

·         $49,000

·         Electric Propulsion

o   Drive System: 120 kW, 220 Nm, 13,000 rpm Regenerative braking

o   Battery: Li Ion, 39 kWh, 580 lb

o   Charger: Onboard, plug in anywhere, up to 20 kW; 2 hrs fast charge, 5 hrs slow charge

o   Vehicle to grid (V2G): Bi-directional grid interface

·         Composite materials body

·         Seating: One seat for three passengers

·         Air conditioning

·         Power brakes

·         Leather seats

·         Multi-function display

·         Satellite radio, digital media player, internet access, GPS

·         Dimensions: 65” wide, 104.3” length, 68.9” wheelbase, 59” high, 1238 lb weight

·         124 mph top speed

·         200-240 miles range

·         0-60 mph in <4.5 seconds

 

Phoenix Sport Utility Truck:

http://www.phoenixmotorcars.com

Tango T200

http://www.commutercars.com

 

·         Being designed

·         $39,900

·         0-60 in 5 seconds

·         Ό mile in 14 seconds

·         5-star NHNTSA static rollover resistance rating

·         Fiberglass body

·         Four 50 kW electric hub motors

·         AC controller with 200 kW power

·         Regenerative braking with ABS

·         Dimensions: 39” wide, 8’ 5” long, 60” high, 2200 lbs

 

Th!nk City

http://en.think.no

Th!nkFront Th!nkDoorsOpen Th!nkSide

 

·                                 Hatch back presently only available in Norway

·                                 Zebra molten-salt battery (28 kWh upgrade)

·                                 $35,000

·                                 110 miles range

·                                 60 mph top speed

·                                 Regenerative braking

·                                 Dual air bags

·                                 ABS brakes

·                                 Power steering and windos

·                                 4 kW electric heater

·                                 Roof rack and sunroof extra

·                                 Length: 10.2’, width: 5.3’, height: 5.2’

·                                 Turning radius: 14.8’

·                                 Payload: 365 lbs

·                                 0-50 mph in 16 seconds

·                                 Maximum gradient: 30% from standstill; 5% gradient @ 55 mph

·                                 Charging: 10 hrs @ 220 volts & 14 amperes (80% in 8 hrs)

Very Expensive Vehicles (>$50,000)

Obvio 012E

http://www.ZAPworld.com/ZAPWorld.aspx?id=386

Ќ°

·         $59,000

·         Electric Propulsion

o   Drive System: 120 kW, 220 Nm, 13,000 rpm Regenerative braking

o   Battery: Li Ion, 39 kWh, 580 lb

o   Charger: Onboard, plug in anywhere, up to 20 kW; 2 hrs fast charge, 5 hrs slow charge

o   Vehicle to grid (V2G): Bi-directional grid interface

·         Composite materials body

·         Seating: One seat for three passengers

·         Air conditioning

·         Power brakes

·         Leather seats

·         Multi-function display

·         Satellite radio, digital media player, internet access, GPS

·         Dimensions: 71” wide, 104.3” length, 126” wheelbase, 89” high, 1648 lb weight

·         124 mph top speed

·         0-60 mph in <4.5 seconds

 

Tesla

http://www.teslamotors.com

°

·         $109,000.

·         250 miles per charge.

·         0-60 mph in 4 seconds.

·         Top speed 135 mph.

·         Full charge takes 3.5 hours.

·         135 mpg equivalent.

·         about $0.01 per mile.

·         Colors: "°

 

Tango T600

http://www.commutercars.com

 

·         Mostly assembled kit >day to complete

·         $108,000

·         0-60 in 4 secondsΌ mile in 12 seconds

·         Top speed 120 mph

·         Range between charges 40-80 miles

·         5-star NHNTSA static rollover resistance rating

·         Carbon-fiber body

·         Two DC electric motors with 1000 ft-lbs torque

·         2000 Amperes Zilla controller with 600 kW peak power

·         Dimensions: 39” wide, 8’ 5” long, 60” high, 2500 lbs

 

Batteries

·         Conditioning batteries properly is required to get the most out of your vehicle, typically 15 or more charging cycles. Optimal range will happen after this break in period.

·         With normal use, the no maintenance, deep-cycle batteries should last up to three years.

·         Battery break-in and maintenance: http://www.xebraworld.com/Battery%20Maintenance.htm .

·         In a cold climate the car needs to be kept as warm as possible in a garage. At 32 degrees F the battery energy capacity is reduced to about 80%, at 0 degrees F it is reduced to about 60%.

·         Battery Essentials: http://www.ev-america.com (link for e-mail to request the paper in the middle of the web page)

·         Electric Vehicles Safety: http://www.austinev.org/evinfo/build/eva-safetyfirst.html

·         PowerCheq battery voltage equalizer

·         Brain Drain: A useful system monitoring device

 

Books about Cars, Especially Electric

·         The Electric Car: Development and Future of Battery, Hybrid and Fuel-Cell Cars by Michael H. Westbrook, 2005.

·         The Electric Vehicle and the Burden of History by David A. Kirsch, 2000.

·         Taking Charge: The Electric Automobile in America by Michael Brian Schiffer, 1999.

·         Electric and Hybrid Vehicles: Design Fundamentals by Iqbal Husain, 2003.

·         The Essential Hybrid Car Handbook: A Buyers Guide, Nick Yost, 2006.

·         Plug-in Hybrids by Sherry Boschert, 2006.

·         The Zero-Carbon Car: Building the Car the Auto Industry Can’t Get Right by William H. Kemp, 2007.

·         Forward Drive: The Race to Build “Clean” Cars for the Future by Jim Motavalli, 2001.

·         The Hype about Hydrogen by Joseph J. Romm, 2005.

·         Lives Per Gallon: The True Cost of Our Oil Addiction by Terry Tamminen, 2006.

·         Internal Combustion: How Corporations and Governments Addicted the World to Oil and Derailed the Alternatives by Edwin Black, 2006.

·         Traffic Safety and the Driver by Leonard Evans, 1991.

·         High and Mighty: SUVs: The World's Most Dangerous Vehicles and How They Got That Way by Keith Bradsher, 2004.

·         Electric Dreams: One Unlikely Team of Kids and the Race to Build the Car of the Future by Caroline Kettlewell, 2004.

·         Carfree Cities by J. H. Crawford, 2002.

Links

Is electric automobile perfect second car?  - March 15, 2007, Erwin Gugolz - Xebra Owner, by Ken Goze, Saff Writer, Northbrook Star, Member of the Sun-Times News Group

Less Global-Warming Gases Emissions

Two reasons that electric vehicles produce less Global-Warming-gases emissions than do gasoline cars:

1.      Electric motors use energy more efficiently (about 90%) than do gasoline engines (about 25%) or diesel engines (about 40%).So, even with coal electric power plants at about 40% efficiency, electric vehicles times coal efficiency yields about 36% efficiency, which is better than gasoline vehicles and about the same as diesel vehicles. However, energy efficiency is not the same as carbon-dioxide emissions. A gallon of gasoline contains about 36.6 kWh of energy and produces about 19.4 lbs of carbon dioxide; so, per kWh the relevant number is about 0.53 lbs/kWh for burning gasoline at 100% efficiency. The actual efficiency of about 25% for gasoline engines changes the number for gasoline engines to 2.12 lbs/kWh. Compare this to the coal-fired-power number of 2.25 lbs/kWh. However, the U.S. mix of electric power plants (see below) yields about 1.78 lbs/kWh or lower, which is considerably lower than the 2.12 figure for gasoline engines.
Using natural gas for an electric power plant improves the efficiency to about 60%, yielding a combined efficiency for electric vehicles of about 54%, considerably better than diesel vehicles.
Wind or photovoltaic electric power plants at 100% efficiency, in terms of not requiring fuel, yields a combined efficiency of about 90% for electric vehicles, much better than gasoline or diesel vehicles.
The sources of electrical energy in the U.S. are http://www.clean-energy.us/images/8_trans_spacer.gifhttp://www.clean-energy.us/images/black_padded.gifCoal 50% http://www.clean-energy.us/images/black_padded.gifNuclear 20% http://www.clean-energy.us/images/black_padded.gifNatural Gas 18% http://www.clean-energy.us/images/black_padded.gifHydro 7% http://www.clean-energy.us/images/black_padded.gifOther 5%. Assuming that nuclear electric power generation is as inefficient as coal for producing electricity, when all factors are considered, the average efficiency of U.S. electric power generation is about . Then the average yield for electric vehicles in the U.S. is about 46%.
In almost all circumstances electric vehicles are much better than gasoline vehicles and usually better than diesel vehicles. As more and more renewable sources of energy are used to produce electricity, electric vehicles will be much better than fossil-fueled vehicles in not emitting Global-Warming gases.

 

2.      It is easier to sequester the Global-Warming gases at a power plant than from the tail pipes of millions of vehicles. See http://electric-cars-are-for-girls.com/electric-powered-cars.html .

 

Less Pocket-Book Dollars Emissions

A gallon of gasoline contains about 36.6 kWh of energy and a gallon of diesel contains about 40.6 kWh of energy. (http://www.bpa.gov/Corporate/KR/ed/energyaudit/chapter1/chap1.htm)

 

If you pay $.08 per kWh for electricity:

·         The equivalent price of the energy content of gasoline would be $2.93 per gallon.

·         The equivalent price of the energy content of diesel would be $3.25 per gallon.

 

However, electric motors are about 90% efficient, gasoline engines are about 25% efficient and diesel engines are about 40% efficient. Allowing for those efficiencies:

·         The equivalent price of gasoline would be $0.81 per gallon.

·         The equivalent price of diesel would be $1.44 per gallon.

 

To calculate the approximate equivalent price per gallon for a gasoline vehicle and a diesel vehicle for a price P per kWh of electricity to charge the batteries of an electric vehicle:

 

                                           

 

Back to top.

 

Compiled by L. David Roper, http://www.roperld.com/personal/roperldavid.htm

This is web page http://www.roperld.com/science/ElectricCars.htm

 

04-Apr-2016