News articles about my ZAP Xebra PK electric pickup:
News articles about my ZAP Xebra PK electric pickup:
An article about my Sun Roper PK was in the New River Valley Current section of The Roanoke Times:
· Speed: Up to 35 mph; 40 mph with the larger Discover EV12A-A batteries.
· Range: New Discover batteries: Up to 30 miles per charge. Charger: Onboard 110 Volts AC. Batteries yield the most energy per lifetime when usual distance traveled is 15 miles per charge.
· Motor: DC brushed 100 volts
· Seating: Up to 2 (Maximum cargo 500 lbs.)
· Climate control: heater, optional fan for cooling
· Batteries: Six 12-volts sealed gel lead-acid deep-cycle traction batteries, placed under the truck bed for easy access, along with charger, controller and accessories 12-volts battery. See below. I added a 7th battery to change Sun Roper from 72 volts to 84 volts; it made a huge difference for driving around Blacksburg & Christiansburg VA.
· Classification: 3 wheel motorcycle (Zero Emission Vehicle)
· Dimensions: 10’ length, 4’ 6” width, 5’ 1” height, 1820 lbs weight; the inside of the bed is 56” long by 51” wide.
· Body and frame: steel, rubber mat to protect the bed.
· Brakes: disc on all 3 wheels
· Running light: front center with high and low beam
· AM/FM cassette deck with input jack in rear of radio
· Color: BluePrice: About $12,000
· Warranty: Six months, two years on Curtis controller.
· Review of ZAP Xebra PK (Has a link for many pictures.) I disagree with some of the conclusions.
· Xebra PK Xero Note the room for a 4’x 4’ piece of plywood between the back pillars.
· Solar Panel: 150 Watts (It would take 47 hours to charge the 7.1 kWh batteries with this solar panel. 10 hours of full sunlight would charge the batteries about 21%.) The solar panel can be put on the ZAP Xebra PK by extending it over the hood or by using it as a covering for the bed. The main purpose of it is to trickle charge the batteries to make them last longer.
· LED Lights: An optional feature that is installed on my PK. It reduces the energy needed from the accessories battery and therefore the necessity to charge the accessories battery from the traction battery pack.
· The 110-Volts inlet plug on the right-rear side of the Xebra needs to be rated at a minimum of 20 amperes and a minimum extension cord of 12AWG gauge is necessary. If the cord is longer than 25 feet, use a 10AWG gauge extension cord. Comes with a 10-feet cord.
· The six batteries are Discover Model EV12A-A, 12-Volts, 138 Amp-hours @ 20 hours/119 Amp-hours @ 5 hours, deep-cycle sealed advanced AGM batteries that cost $535 each and weigh 89.5 lbs (40.6 kg) each. They are in series for a total of 72 Volts. Therefore, 9.9 kWh maximum energy can be stored in the 6 batteries. For travel in small hills, it is better to upgrade to 84 volts by adding a 7th battery.
· The Delta QuiQ charger can fully charge the batteries in 6 hours; half charge takes 1.5 hours. The duration of an average charge at a speed of 30 mph will yield approximately 30 miles (56 km) of travel. Up to 60 miles per day with opportunity charging.
· Factors such as prolonged high speed, excessive stop and go traffic, inclined or uneven roads and weight will play a role in decreasing the distance that you can drive. The Xebra was built for short routes on flat terrain. It can easily handle a 5% incline with the standard controller. Using the Xebra on hills will decrease distance per charge.
· Conditioning batteries properly is required to get the most out of your vehicle, typically 15 or more charging cycles. Optimal range will happen after this break in period.
· With normal use, the no maintenance, deep-cycle batteries should last up to three years.
· In a cold climate the car needs to be kept as warm as possible in a garage. At 32 degrees F the battery energy capacity is reduced to about 80%, at 0 degrees F it is reduced to about 60%.
· Battery Essentials: http://www.ev-america.com (link for e-mail to request the paper in the middle of the web page)
· PakTrakr: A batteries monitoring device. I have it.
· 150-watts 75-volts Solar panel: It is on a frame as a roof over the bed of the PK to trickle charge the batteries pack. The frame is a kit made by ZAP, although an owner could make her/his own frame. The panel will be slightly below the frame so that long items can be hauled on the frame above the panel. I will put a picture of the installation steps after it is accomplished.
· Zibo Boshan Super Motor Co., Ltd. Mod 192ZC52, 5 kiloWatts (6.7 hp), 72 Volts, 82 Amperes; RPM 2800-3600, temperature ≤ 40ºC, with cooling fan.
· Curtis Model EVC255-8002, Part #CC25585002, 80-Volts DC, maximum 300 Amperes. Made in China.
· There is an audio jack in the front of the stereo into which one can hook a CD player. There is a spare tire and a car jack.
Rhinoliner under the bed
Two reasons that electric vehicles can produce less Global-Warming-gases emissions than do gasoline cars:
So, even with coal electric power plants at about 40% efficiency, electric
vehicles times coal efficiency yields about 36% efficiency, which is better than gasoline vehicles and about
the same as diesel vehicles. However, energy efficiency is not the same as
carbon-dioxide emissions. A gallon of gasoline contains about 36.6 kWh of
energy and produces about 19.4 lbs of carbon dioxide; so, per kWh the relevant
number is about 0.53 lbs/kWh for burning gasoline at 100% efficiency. The
actual efficiency of about 25% for gasoline engines changes the number for
gasoline engines to 2.12 lbs/kWh. Compare this to the coal-fired-power number
of 2.25 lbs/kWh. However, the
· Using natural gas for an electric power plant improves the efficiency to about 60%, yielding a combined efficiency for electric vehicles of about 54%, considerably better than diesel vehicles.
· Wind or photovoltaic electric power plants at 100% efficiency in terms of not requiring fuel yields a combined efficiency of about 90% for electric vehicles, much better than gasoline or diesel vehicles.
The sources of electrical
energy in the U.S. are Coal
Gas 18% Hydro
5%. Assuming that nuclear electric power generation is as inefficient as coal
for producing electricity, when all
factors are considered, the average efficiency of
· In almost all circumstances electric vehicles are much better than gasoline vehicles and usually better than diesel vehicles. As more and more renewable sources of energy are used to produce electricity, electric vehicles will be much better than fossil-fueled vehicles in not emitting Global-Warming gases.
· It is easier to sequester the Global-Warming gases at a power plant than from the tail pipes of millions of vehicles.
A gallon of gasoline contains about 36.6 kWh of energy and a gallon of diesel contains about 40.6 kWh of energy. (http://www.bpa.gov/Corporate/KR/ed/energyaudit/chapter1/chap1.htm)
If you pay $0.08 per kWh for electricity:
· The equivalent price of the energy content of gasoline would be $2.93 per gallon.
· The equivalent price of the energy content of diesel would be $3.25 per gallon.
· The equivalent price of gasoline would be $0.81 per gallon.
· The equivalent price of diesel would be $1.44 per gallon.
To calculate the approximate equivalent price per gallon for a gasoline vehicle and a diesel vehicle for a price P per kWh of electricity to charge the batteries of an electric vehicle:
Of course, one has to also include the costs of replacing the batteries, possibly every three years. If one drives 10,000 miles per
year and the 6 batteries cost $120 each, the cost per mile for the batteries is about $0.024 per mile. Round it off to $0.03 per mile. The Xebra travels about 5 miles per kWh. At $0.08 per kWh, that is about $0.015 per mile. So the total cost is about $0.04 per mile. By the way, the batteries are recyclable. The batteries’ lifetime can be maximized by proper care (http://xebraworld.com/Battery%20Maintenance.htm) and a voltage-equalizer add on (http://www.evsource.com/tls_powercheq.php).
This is web page http://www.roperld.com/science/ZAPXebraPKRoper.htm