Little/Klein/Cline/Kline Y-Chromosome Project

L. David Roper (roperld@vt.edu)
(www.roperld.com)

Specific information about the Capt. Daniel Little family can be found at: http://www.roperld.com/CaptLittle.htm
Click here to join the Little/Klein/Cline/Kline Y-chromosome project.
(Only males with surnames Little, Klein, Cline or Kline)
There are 3 choices for Y-chromosome tests:
  1. 12 markers for $101 (including $2 handling; $4 outside USA).
  2. 37 markers for $121 (including $2 for handling; $4 outside USA).
  3. 67 markers for $250 (including $2 for handling; $4 outside USA).
    12 are usually enough to separate different branches of a Roper family.
    The higher markers help to distinguish different branches of a family.

FTDNA test kit

Also, send data showing your Little/Klein/Cline/Kline ancestry to roperld@vt.edu
This web pages changes regularly. If you have not viewed it for a while, be sure to reload it to override its old version in your computer's cache.
Information about the Y-chromosome

Interesting fact: In the 1990 census the frequency of ocurrence of the Little surname was 0.046% with rank 226; of the Klein surname was 0.026% with rank 436; of the Cline surname was 0.020 with rank 595; and of the Kline surname was 0.015 with rank 770.

Contents

Introduction

There are at least three theories about the parents of Capt. Daniel Little:

There is a way to settle at least parts, and maybe all, of the question:

  1. Test the Y-chromosomes for two or more male-line Littles that are certain descendants of Capt. Daniel Little.
  2. Test the Y-Chromosomes for two or more male-line Kleins that are certain descendants of Johann Heinrich Klein.
  3. Test the Y-Chromosomes for two or more male-line Clines that are certain descendants of Sebastian Cline.

If all of these tests yield the almost the same Y-chromosome markers, then all three lines came from a common ancestor. If the Capt. Daniel Little male-line tests are quite different from the other two, then we need to look for another set of parents for him; perhaps Irish parents.

Perhaps a more important result of testing many male-line Littles/Kleins/Cline/Klines would be that sets of Y-chromosome markers would be determined for different families and rare random mutations for branches of those families would provide identity markers for the branches. To see how this has worked out for my Roper family, see http://www.roperld.com/roperconnect.htm.

Elementary genetics teaches that a human egg becomes a female embryo when a sperm gives it an X-chromosome and a male embryo when the sperm gives it a Y-chromosome. Thus, the Y-chromosome is passed down generations only through the male line. The only change from one generation to the next is by mutations, which are rare. So one can determine male paternal lineage by comparing the DNA coding of Y-chromosomes.

There are "junk" regions on the Y-chromosome that contain repeated base-pair sets (microsatellites or Short Tandem Repeats or STR). Over time the number of repeats changes due to mutations. The number of repeats at these locations, called “markers” can be used to distinguish different male-line families. Thus, the detailed structure in terms of base-pair coding is not required; only information about certain aspects of a small part of the Y-chromosome is needed. This does not identify the individual, but only the family to which the individual belongs; determining the 12 or 25 markers (see below) is much less information than that obtained by totally sequencing the Y-chromosome. There are several labs that do such work, at a cost of about $100 per person.

Click here to join the Little/Klein/Cline/Kline Y-chromosome project.
(Only males with surnames Little, Klein, Cline or Kline)
Also, send data showing your Little/Klein/Cline/Kline ancestry to roperld@vt.edu

If you wish to participate in the Little/Klein/Cline/Kline Y-chromosome project send me e-mail: mailto:roperld@vt.edu or go to http://www.familytreedna.com/surname_det.asp?count=8&group=Little.

Many of the testees are in the R1b1 haplogroup, the largest European haplogroup.

Project Progress.

A list of the Little/Klein/Cline/Kline Y markers alleles

The results ("alleles") so far are (DYS=DNA Y-chromosome Short Tandem Repeat) are no longer listed, because of the extreme amount of work to do so. Refer to your results on the FTDNA site.

Relative Mutations

Another view of the Little markers.

Probabilities


(See MRCA.pdf)

Number of matching markers

50% probability that the MRCA was no longer than this number of generations

90% probability that the MRCA was no longer than this number of generations

95% probability that the MRCA was no longer than this number of generations

4 of 4

43

144

187

6 of 6

29

96

125

12 of 12

14.5

48

62

See Y-Chromosome Markers Probabilities for a more detailed discussion.

Return to top of page.

25 Markers

Some of the Little/Klein/Cline/Kline participants have ordered the extra 13-markers test as shown in the results above

Another view of the Little markers.

We see that DCL & LLL differ by only one relative mutation (rm) for the 25 markers; also JDL & LLL differ by only one rm, but DCL & JDL differ by two rm. Also, LLL and JPL have the same 25 markers and their nearest common ancestor is Capt.Daniel Little. Thus, it appears that the 25 markers for Capt. Daniel Little are:

Location
(prefix DYS):
393 390 19
(394)
391 385a 385b 426 388 439 389-1 392 389-2
Value: 13 25 14 12 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29
Location:
(prefix DYS)
458 459a 459b 455 454 447 437 448 449 464a 464b 464c 464d
Value: 18 9 9 11 11 25 15 20 29 15 16 17 17

LLL and JDL are known from genealogy to be 3rd cousins and DCL is their 5th cousin 1 generation removed.

There are no other surnames that have 1 or 2 relative mutations with this Little family. Therefore, I conclude that this occurrence of the Little surname is relatively old.

We need to measure some more descendants of Capt. Daniel Little to nail down these values.

Any Little/Klein/Cline/Kline male who wants to find out if he is related to Capt. Daniel Little can have his 12 or 25 Y-chromosome markers measured to see if they are the same or differ by only 1 or 2 relative mutations from this set.

We see that JMAL ,LWL & DAL have exactly the same 25 markers. Thus, a first approximation for the 25 markers for this family are:

Location
(prefix DYS):
393 390 19
(394)
391 385a 385b 426 388 439 389-1 392 389-2
Value: 13 24 10 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29
Location:
(prefix DYS)
458 459a 459b 455 454 447 437 448 449 464a 464b 464c 464d
Value: 17 9 9 11 11 25 15 19 30 15 16 16 17

There are no other surnames that have 1 or 2 relative mutations with this Little family. Therefore, I conclude that this occurrence of the Little surname is relatively old.

We need to measure some more members of this family to nail down these numbers.

The 25 markers for CHL, DWL & RDL are identical, so the 25 markers for this family are:

Location
(prefix DYS):
393 390 19
(394)
391 385a 385b 426 388 439 389-1 392 389-2
Value: 13 23 13 10 16 17 11 12 12 13 13 30
Location:
(prefix DYS)
458 459a 459b 455 454 447 437 448 449 464a 464b 464c 464d
Value: 17 9 9 11 11 26 14 20 32 13 15 15 15

There are no other surnames that have 1 or 2 relative mutations with this Little family. Therefore, I conclude that this occurrence of the Little surname is relatively old.

A way to compare each participant with all other participants is to record the number of mutations by which they differ (relative mutations or genetic distance) for 25 markers:

25 markers Relative Mutations DCL LLL JPL JDL AWL REL RKL CEL JAL DCL2 CAL CGL GLC WHC RHC LDC WHC2 JCC RC GBC ENH JLC WGI PEK GHC PCK GRK WHK BDC CK CC EJK EAK WAK RMK JK2 RCK MK KAK MDK RDC DAC JKLK LWC HDC JLC2 DC JJC CGK JWK MSK STK JAK DCC AMK BGC GWK JMR MWK JHC2 RCC CTK EHK AK CJK SBK JDC MK2 LDC RSK DK
1 DCL 0 DCL
2 LLL 1 0 LLL
3 JPL 1 0 0 JPL
4 JDL 2 1 1 0 JDL
5 AWL 0 1 1 2 0 AWL
6 REL 0 1 1 2 0 0 REL
7 RKL 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 RKL
8 CEL 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 0 CEL
9 JAL 29 30 30 30 29 29 30 31 0 JAL
10 DCL2 28 29 29 29 28 28 29 30 1 0 DCL2
11 CAL 29 30 30 29 29 29 30 31 1 2 0 CAL
12 CGL 30 31 31 31 30 30 31 32 3 2 4 0 CGL
13 GLC 29 30 30 31 29 29 30 31 26 25 26 26 0 GLC
14 WHC 29 30 30 31 29 29 30 31 26 25 26 26 0 0 WHC
15 RHC 29 30 30 31 29 29 30 31 26 25 26 26 0 0 0 RHC
16 LDC 29 30 30 31 29 29 30 31 26 25 26 26 0 0 0 0 LDC
17 WHC2 29 30 30 31 29 29 30 31 26 25 26 26 0 0 0 0 0 WHC2
18 JCC 24 25 25 25 24 24 25 26 29 30 30 31 24 24 24 24 24 0 JCC
19 RC 26 27 27 27 26 26 27 28 31 32 32 33 26 26 26 26 26 2 0 RC
20 GBC 27 28 28 28 27 27 28 29 30 31 31 32 27 27 27 27 27 3 5 0 GBC
21 ENH 26 27 27 27 26 26 27 28 29 30 30 31 26 26 26 26 26 2 4 1 0 ENH
22 JLC 26 27 27 27 26 26 27 28 29 30 30 31 26 26 26 26 26 2 4 1 0 0 JLC
23 WGI 25 26 26 26 25 25 26 27 31 32 31 33 23 23 23 23 23 3 5 6 5 5 0 WGI
24 PEK 25 26 26 26 25 25 26 27 30 31 31 32 25 25 25 25 25 1 1 4 3 3 4 0 PEK
25 GHC 24 25 25 25 24 24 25 26 29 30 30 31 24 24 24 24 24 0 2 3 2 2 3 1 0 GHC
26 PCK 6 7 7 8 6 6 7 8 30 29 30 31 28 28 28 28 28 25 27 28 27 27 26 26 25 0 PCK
27 GRK 6 7 7 8 6 6 7 8 30 29 30 31 28 28 28 28 28 25 27 28 27 27 26 26 25 0 0 GRK
28 WHK 15 16 16 17 15 15 16 17 28 27 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 25 27 28 27 27 27 26 25 14 14 0 WHK
29 BDC 6 7 7 6 6 6 7 8 28 27 27 29 29 29 29 29 29 27 29 30 29 29 28 28 27 4 4 13 0 BDC
30 CK 6 7 7 8 6 6 7 6 29 28 29 30 29 29 29 29 29 28 30 31 30 30 29 29 28 4 4 13 2 0 CK
31 CC 5 6 6 6 5 5 6 7 27 26 26 28 29 29 29 29 29 26 28 29 28 28 27 27 26 4 4 13 2 3 0 CC
32 EJK 21 22 22 21 21 21 22 21 32 31 31 32 27 27 27 27 27 30 32 31 30 30 31 31 30 20 20 19 17 17 18 0 EJK
33 EAK 21 22 22 23 21 21 22 21 35 34 35 35 27 27 27 27 27 31 33 32 31 31 32 32 31 22 22 17 21 19 21 4 0 EAK
34 WAK 20 21 21 20 20 20 21 20 33 32 32 33 26 26 26 26 26 29 31 30 29 29 30 30 29 21 21 20 18 18 19 1 3 0 WAK
35 RMK 24 25 25 25 24 24 25 24 25 24 26 26 27 27 27 27 27 30 32 33 32 32 33 31 30 29 29 31 27 26 26 33 34 32 0 RMK
36 JK2 22 23 23 23 22 22 23 24 27 26 27 27 25 25 25 25 25 31 33 34 33 33 33 32 31 19 19 25 19 20 19 30 31 31 24 0 JK2
37 RCK 7 8 8 7 7 7 8 9 25 24 24 26 34 34 34 34 34 26 28 29 28 28 27 27 26 7 7 18 5 7 5 22 26 23 26 22 0 RCK
38 MK 26 27 27 28 26 26 27 28 29 28 30 30 24 24 24 24 24 28 30 31 30 30 30 29 28 27 27 23 26 26 26 32 28 31 26 16 31 0 MK
39 KAK 10 11 11 12 10 10 11 12 33 32 33 34 27 27 27 27 27 26 28 29 28 28 27 27 26 8 8 13 6 6 7 19 19 20 30 20 11 24 0 KAK
40 MDK 10 11 11 10 10 10 11 10 28 27 27 29 27 27 27 27 27 23 25 26 25 25 24 24 23 10 10 19 8 8 8 21 23 20 23 23 9 26 12 0 MDK
41 RDC 26 27 27 28 26 26 27 26 29 28 30 29 14 14 14 14 14 22 24 25 24 24 22 23 22 27 27 29 28 26 26 29 29 28 29 31 31 32 26 22 0 RDC
42 DAC 27 28 28 27 27 27 28 29 13 12 12 12 19 19 19 19 19 27 29 30 29 29 28 28 27 28 28 29 25 27 24 32 36 33 20 24 24 26 29 25 25 0 DAC
43 JDLK 9 10 10 11 9 9 10 11 31 30 31 31 29 29 29 29 29 28 30 31 30 30 29 29 28 8 8 15 7 7 7 21 21 20 28 24 12 26 11 11 28 28 0 JDLK
44 LWC 26 27 27 27 26 26 27 26 30 29 30 30 17 17 17 17 17 15 17 16 15 15 15 16 15 25 25 26 25 24 26 23 24 22 30 30 30 27 24 21 16 23 26 0 LWC
45 HDC 26 27 27 27 26 26 27 26 30 29 30 30 17 17 17 17 17 15 17 16 15 15 15 16 15 25 25 26 25 24 26 23 24 22 30 30 30 27 24 21 16 23 26 0 0 HDC
46 JLC2 24 25 25 25 24 24 25 26 24 23 25 24 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 26 25 25 25 22 23 21 21 25 23 24 24 25 28 26 25 23 24 28 24 25 26 20 26 24 24 0 JLC2
47 DC 23 24 24 24 23 23 24 25 22 21 23 22 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 24 23 23 23 20 21 20 20 24 22 23 23 25 28 26 23 22 23 27 23 24 26 18 25 23 23 2 0 DC
48 JJC 24 25 25 25 24 24 25 26 23 22 24 23 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 25 24 24 24 21 22 21 21 25 23 24 24 26 29 27 24 23 24 28 24 25 27 19 26 24 24 1 1 0 JJC
49 CGK 28 29 29 30 28 28 29 30 33 34 34 36 26 26 26 26 26 29 31 32 31 31 31 30 29 30 30 25 30 30 30 30 26 29 27 20 35 10 26 32 33 32 30 32 32 32 31 32 0 CGK
50 JWK 11 12 12 12 11 11 12 13 31 30 32 30 30 30 30 30 30 23 25 26 25 25 25 24 23 8 8 16 8 9 7 21 24 22 30 22 11 29 11 12 26 28 12 26 26 25 24 25 35 0 JWK
51 MSK 11 12 12 11 11 11 12 11 30 29 29 31 33 33 33 33 33 25 27 28 27 27 26 26 25 8 8 19 7 7 6 19 23 20 25 21 8 30 13 7 26 29 13 25 25 25 24 25 34 10 0 MSK
52 STK 9 10 10 10 9 9 10 11 26 25 27 27 26 26 26 26 26 27 29 30 29 29 29 28 27 9 9 17 6 7 8 23 26 24 25 20 11 24 7 10 22 23 12 24 24 21 20 21 28 12 13 0 STK
53 JAK 28 29 29 29 28 28 29 28 31 30 32 29 22 22 22 22 22 20 22 23 22 22 22 21 20 27 27 29 27 26 26 26 27 25 24 27 28 28 28 21 27 27 28 24 24 23 21 22 28 25 23 27 0 JAK
54 DCC 10 11 11 11 10 10 11 10 28 27 27 29 28 28 28 28 28 23 25 26 25 25 24 24 23 7 7 16 7 6 5 17 20 18 27 22 8 29 10 7 27 27 12 23 23 23 22 23 33 10 5 13 21 0 DCC
55 AMK 23 24 24 24 23 23 24 23 20 19 21 19 17 17 17 17 17 24 26 27 26 26 26 25 24 24 24 26 22 21 23 27 28 26 17 22 27 23 25 22 20 13 22 19 19 19 19 18 25 25 26 22 22 26 0 AMK
56 BGC 24 25 25 25 24 24 25 26 28 29 27 30 14 14 14 14 14 20 22 23 22 22 19 21 20 25 25 28 25 26 23 29 30 28 31 29 28 33 26 23 7 24 26 19 19 25 25 26 33 23 25 25 28 26 21 0 BGC
57 GWK 29 30 30 31 29 29 30 29 28 27 29 28 11 11 11 11 11 22 24 25 24 24 22 23 22 30 30 30 31 29 29 29 29 28 27 30 32 31 31 23 7 24 31 18 18 27 27 28 33 29 27 27 22 28 19 10 0 GWK
58 JMR 29 30 30 31 29 29 30 29 28 27 29 28 11 11 11 11 11 22 24 25 24 24 22 23 22 30 30 30 31 29 29 29 29 28 27 30 32 31 31 23 7 24 31 18 18 27 27 28 33 29 27 27 22 28 19 10 0 0 JMR
59 MWK 29 30 30 31 29 29 30 29 28 27 29 28 11 11 11 11 11 22 24 25 24 24 22 23 22 30 30 30 31 29 29 29 29 28 27 30 32 31 31 23 7 24 31 18 18 27 27 28 33 29 27 27 22 28 19 10 0 0 0 MWK
60 JHC2 29 30 30 31 29 29 30 29 39 38 39 39 27 27 27 27 27 34 36 37 36 36 35 35 34 27 27 25 27 25 27 30 28 31 31 21 32 22 25 29 32 32 29 29 29 34 34 35 26 28 29 26 31 28 28 36 33 33 33 0 JHC2
61 RRC 6 7 7 7 6 6 7 8 24 23 24 25 27 27 27 27 27 25 27 28 27 27 25 26 25 7 7 16 5 6 4 21 24 22 23 21 8 27 10 11 25 22 10 24 24 22 20 21 31 9 9 6 25 9 22 23 28 28 28 28 0 RCC
62 CTK 27 28 28 28 27 27 28 29 25 24 26 25 11 11 11 11 11 18 20 21 20 20 19 19 18 28 28 28 28 29 27 28 29 27 29 32 29 33 29 22 9 23 29 17 17 24 24 25 35 26 28 24 23 26 22 10 8 8 8 35 25 0 CTk
63 EHK 7 8 8 7 7 7 8 9 25 24 24 26 30 30 30 30 30 28 30 31 30 30 29 29 28 9 9 14 5 7 5 16 20 17 26 22 8 29 11 11 27 24 12 28 28 26 25 26 29 11 10 11 26 10 21 24 30 30 30 30 8 27 0 EHK
64 AK 10 9 9 10 10 10 9 10 31 30 31 32 29 29 29 29 29 26 28 29 28 28 27 27 26 10 10 19 8 8 7 25 27 26 24 20 9 26 10 10 28 25 13 26 26 28 27 28 30 13 11 11 24 10 23 26 27 27 27 25 10 27 11 0 AK
65 CJK 10 11 11 10 10 10 11 12 26 25 26 25 27 27 27 27 27 26 28 29 28 28 28 27 26 7 7 13 4 6 5 19 23 20 25 16 9 24 10 12 29 22 9 27 27 22 21 22 28 8 10 9 26 10 18 27 30 30 30 25 8 29 9 12 0 CJK
66 SBK 9 10 10 9 9 9 10 9 27 26 26 28 28 28 28 28 28 26 28 29 28 28 27 27 26 7 7 12 3 3 5 16 20 17 24 20 8 25 9 7 27 24 8 24 24 22 21 22 29 11 8 9 24 8 19 26 28 28 28 26 8 29 8 11 5 0 SBK
67 JDC 7 8 8 8 7 7 8 9 26 25 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 27 29 30 29 29 29 28 27 9 9 17 6 7 6 21 22 20 27 22 9 26 11 8 24 27 8 26 26 27 26 27 30 10 11 8 25 11 22 25 27 27 27 26 8 24 7 11 9 9 0 JDC
68 MK2 7 8 8 7 7 7 8 9 25 24 24 26 28 28 28 28 28 26 28 29 28 28 27 27 26 7 7 14 3 5 3 18 22 19 26 18 6 27 9 9 27 24 10 28 28 24 23 24 29 9 8 9 24 8 21 24 28 28 28 26 6 27 4 9 5 4 5 0 MK2
69 LDC 27 28 28 29 27 27 28 27 28 27 29 28 13 13 13 13 13 22 24 25 24 24 22 23 22 28 28 30 29 27 27 27 27 26 29 32 30 33 29 21 5 26 29 18 18 27 27 28 35 27 25 25 24 26 21 8 2 2 2 35 26 6 28 27 30 28 25 28 0 LDC
70 RSK 28 29 29 28 28 28 29 28 28 27 28 28 10 10 10 10 10 24 26 27 26 26 24 25 24 27 27 27 26 26 27 26 28 25 29 28 31 30 28 22 8 23 28 18 18 23 23 24 32 27 28 23 24 28 17 10 7 7 7 32 26 8 27 30 25 23 25 25 7 0 RSK
71 DK 10 11 11 12 10 10 11 12 30 29 30 29 29 29 29 29 29 28 30 31 30 30 29 29 28 6 6 14 6 6 6 19 21 20 29 22 11 29 8 14 28 26 9 26 26 26 25 26 32 6 12 11 30 11 22 24 31 31 31 26 9 29 9 12 7 9 11 9 29 28 0 DK
DCL LLL JPL JDL AWL REL RKL CEL JAL DCL2 CAL CGL GLC WHC RHC LDC WHC2 JCC RC GBC ENH JLC WGI PEK GHC PCK GRK WHK BDC CK CC EJK EAK WAK RMK JK2 RCK MK KAK MDK RDC DAC JDLK LWC HDC JLC2 DC JJC CGK JWK MSK STK JAK DCC AMK BGC GWK JMR MWK JHC2 RCC CTK EHK AK CJK SBK JDC MK2 LDC RSK DK

Neither of the Clines, GLC & JCC, are closely related to the Littles or to each other.

It is possible to extract 25 makers for 5 Klein/Cline/Klines from http://www.smgf.com/ysearch_input.jsp, but they are a different set than the FTDNA set of 25 markers. The set does not contain the 4 DYS464 markers and it contains the first four of the last 12 FTDNA markers. The relative mutations for this set of 25 markers is:

25 SMGF
markers
Relative Mutations DCL LLL JPL JDL AWL GLC ATK ALK KPC WGK MRK JK
1 DCL 0 DCL
2 LLL 2 0 LLL
3 JPL 1 1 0 JPL
4 JDL 2 0 1 0 JDL
5 AWL 0 2 1 2 0 AWL
6 GLC 29 31 30 31 29 0 GLC
7 ATK 25 27 26 27 25 18 0 ATK
8 ALK 11 13 12 13 11 32 22 0 ALK
9 KPC 10 12 11 12 10 27 23 11 0 KPC
10 WGK 11 13 12 13 11 28 22 10 1 0 WGK
11 MRK 30 32 31 32 30 11 17 27 30 31 0 MRK
12 JK 14 16 15 16 14 27 19 11 12 11 28 0 JK
DCL LLL JPL JDL AWL GLC ATK ALK KPC WGK MRK JK

Note that two of the SGMF entries, KPC & WGK, are in the same Kline/Cline family, called KY1.

See Classifying Little/Kein/Cline/Kline Families According to Y-Chromosome Marker Sets below for a classification scheme for these families.

Relative Mutations for 37 Markers

37 markers Relative Mutations DCL LLL JPL JDL AWL REL RKL CEL JAL CAL CGL GLC WHC RHC WHC2 BDC CK EJK EAK WAK RMK GBC PEK JLC GHC RC RCK MK DAC JDLK MDK JLC2 DC JJC PCK GRK CGK MSK STK JAK DCC BGC RRC GWK JMR MWK CTK EHK AK CJK SBK JDC MK2 LDC
1 DCL 0 DCL
2 LLL 3 0 LLL
3 JPL 1 2 0 JPL
4 JDL 3 2 2 0 JDL
5 AWL 3 6 4 6 0 AWL
6 REL 4 7 5 7 1 0 REL
7 RKL 2 1 1 3 5 6 0 RKL
8 CEL 6 7 5 7 3 4 6 0 CEL
9 JAL 41 42 42 41 40 41 43 41 0 JAL
10 CAL 41 44 42 42 40 41 43 41 3 0 CAL
11 CGL 43 46 44 45 42 43 45 43 6 5 0 CGL
12 GLC 47 48 48 50 46 47 47 49 42 40 41 0 GLC
13 WHC 49 50 50 52 48 49 49 51 44 42 43 4 0 WHC
14 RHC 49 50 50 52 48 47 49 51 44 42 43 4 4 0 RHC
15 WHC2 47 48 48 50 46 47 47 49 42 40 41 2 2 2 0 WHC2
16 BDC 13 16 14 14 12 11 15 15 43 40 43 46 48 44 46 0 BDC
17 CK 15 16 16 18 14 15 15 15 42 40 42 42 44 42 42 6 0 CK
18 EJK 40 41 41 41 39 38 40 40 55 52 54 42 44 40 42 29 29 0 EJK
19 EAK 37 38 38 40 36 35 37 37 55 53 54 43 45 41 43 30 28 7 0 EAK
20 WAK 38 39 39 39 37 36 38 38 55 52 54 40 42 38 40 29 29 4 5 0 WAK
21 RMK 42 43 43 44 39 38 42 40 47 46 47 43 41 43 43 42 41 50 50 48 0 RMK
22 GBC 44 45 45 46 41 42 44 44 47 48 50 48 48 46 46 46 43 51 51 51 54 0 GBC
23 PEK 43 44 44 45 40 41 43 43 48 47 49 45 45 43 43 43 40 50 50 50 51 5 0 PEK
24 JLC 42 43 43 44 39 40 42 42 45 46 48 46 46 44 44 44 41 51 49 49 52 2 5 0 JLC
25 GHC 40 43 41 42 37 38 42 40 45 46 48 46 46 44 44 42 41 51 51 51 52 4 3 4 0 GHC
26 RC 43 44 44 45 40 41 43 43 48 49 51 47 47 45 45 45 42 52 52 52 53 5 2 5 3 0 RC
27 RCK 16 17 17 17 15 14 16 18 42 39 42 53 55 51 53 9 13 34 35 34 43 45 42 43 43 44 0 RCK
28 MK 45 46 46 48 44 43 45 47 52 51 52 35 37 33 35 40 38 46 41 44 41 53 50 51 51 52 47 0 MK
29 DAC 44 45 45 45 45 46 44 48 24 21 22 28 30 30 28 43 41 50 53 50 37 50 47 48 48 49 44 40 0 DAC
30 JDLK 20 21 21 23 17 18 20 20 50 48 49 44 44 44 42 15 15 37 36 37 43 45 42 43 43 44 22 40 44 0 JDLK
31 MDK 20 23 21 21 17 16 22 16 44 43 46 51 51 47 49 15 19 40 39 38 41 39 38 37 35 38 18 47 50 22 0 MDK
32 JLC2 46 47 47 48 45 46 46 48 44 43 43 32 34 34 32 44 41 50 52 50 47 47 42 45 45 44 47 43 37 43 51 0 JLC2
33 DC 45 46 46 47 44 45 45 47 42 41 41 31 33 33 31 43 40 50 52 50 45 45 40 43 43 42 46 42 35 42 50 2 0 DC
34 JJC 45 46 46 47 44 45 45 47 42 41 41 33 33 33 31 43 40 50 52 50 45 45 40 43 43 42 46 42 35 42 50 2 2 0 JJC
35 PCK 13 16 14 16 14 15 15 15 45 43 43 47 49 47 47 8 10 36 35 36 48 46 43 44 42 45 15 45 46 18 19 44 43 43 0 PCK
36 GRK 11 14 12 14 14 15 13 15 45 43 45 47 49 47 47 8 10 36 35 36 48 46 43 44 42 45 15 45 46 18 19 44 43 43 2 0 GRK
37 CGK 59 60 60 62 58 57 59 61 64 63 66 41 39 39 41 56 54 54 51 52 46 60 57 58 58 59 63 22 54 54 63 51 50 52 60 60 0 CGK
38 MSK 19 20 20 20 16 15 19 17 46 43 46 49 51 47 49 12 14 32 33 32 37 43 40 41 41 42 13 43 46 22 15 47 46 46 17 17 59 0 MSK
39 STK 16 17 17 18 13 12 16 16 41 40 41 43 45 43 43 10 13 37 37 37 38 44 41 42 42 43 15 40 41 18 17 42 41 41 17 17 56 16 0 STK
40 JAK 37 40 38 39 36 37 39 37 42 41 39 33 35 35 33 37 34 46 44 42 37 37 34 35 33 36 42 44 37 40 36 38 36 36 37 37 52 34 37 0 JAK
41 DCC 23 24 24 25 22 23 23 23 47 44 47 45 45 43 43 17 16 33 35 35 42 38 35 36 36 37 18 49 43 20 18 42 41 41 17 17 59 16 23 31 0 DCC
42 BGC 41 44 42 43 42 43 43 45 43 40 44 27 27 25 25 41 40 45 45 43 54 43 40 41 39 42 46 51 36 46 44 44 44 44 41 41 55 42 45 40 40 0 BGC
43 RRC 10 13 11 12 9 10 12 12 36 34 36 43 45 43 43 8 11 36 36 36 39 43 40 41 39 42 13 42 39 19 19 42 40 40 12 12 58 13 11 34 20 38 0 RRC
44 GWK 41 44 42 44 42 43 43 43 40 39 39 21 21 21 19 44 40 46 43 44 45 40 37 38 36 39 49 46 31 44 41 43 43 43 43 43 54 41 42 29 41 17 40 0 GWK
45 JMR 41 44 42 44 42 43 43 43 40 39 39 21 21 21 19 44 40 46 43 44 45 40 37 38 36 39 49 46 31 44 41 43 43 43 43 43 54 41 42 29 41 17 40 0 0 JMR
46 MWK 41 44 42 44 42 43 43 43 40 39 39 21 21 21 19 44 40 46 43 44 45 40 37 38 36 39 49 46 31 44 41 43 43 43 43 43 54 41 42 29 41 17 40 0 0 0 MWK
47 CTK 41 42 42 43 40 39 41 43 37 36 36 21 21 19 19 41 40 43 41 41 45 36 33 34 34 35 42 48 34 44 38 40 40 40 45 45 56 38 35 34 41 21 37 14 14 14 0 CTK
48 EHK 18 19 19 19 17 16 18 20 42 39 42 49 51 47 49 11 15 26 27 26 43 45 42 43 43 44 14 43 42 22 22 49 48 48 19 19 55 17 17 42 24 44 15 45 45 45 40 0 EHK
49 AK 26 23 25 25 25 24 24 26 53 53 55 47 49 45 47 19 21 34 35 36 42 52 49 50 50 51 16 39 46 26 26 54 53 53 25 25 55 21 22 45 25 47 22 47 47 47 43 22 0 AK
50 CJK 21 22 22 22 18 17 21 21 45 43 43 42 44 40 42 10 14 29 32 31 38 45 42 43 43 44 15 36 38 17 21 45 44 44 17 17 52 13 13 40 20 45 15 45 45 45 40 17 19 0 CJK
51 SBK 21 22 22 22 18 19 21 19 47 44 47 46 48 46 46 10 10 33 34 31 38 44 41 42 42 43 17 42 43 17 15 44 43 43 16 16 58 16 16 35 17 47 16 46 46 46 47 19 27 14 0 SBK
52 JDC 20 23 21 22 17 16 22 20 43 44 45 49 51 47 49 16 21 39 37 37 44 44 43 42 40 43 21 46 49 24 19 52 51 51 23 23 58 20 18 39 25 45 19 44 44 44 39 19 26 19 24 0 JDC
53 MK2 20 23 21 21 17 16 22 18 44 41 42 49 49 47 47 11 17 34 35 34 39 47 44 45 43 46 18 45 46 20 16 49 48 48 15 17 57 17 17 38 20 44 17 43 43 43 42 16 24 15 15 17 0 MK2
54 LDC 41 44 42 44 40 41 43 41 40 39 39 19 21 21 19 42 38 42 41 38 45 44 41 42 40 43 47 48 35 46 41 43 43 43 43 43 56 39 40 31 43 17 38 8 8 8 14 45 47 45 44 42 45 0 LDC
55 RSK 39 42 40 40 42 43 41 41 41 41 40 27 27 27 25 42 40 48 47 46 52 43 42 41 39 42 49 52 39 46 37 46 46 46 39 39 60 45 39 36 44 24 41 16 16 16 19 47 51 41 44 39 39 20 0 RSK
56 DK 24 25 25 27 23 22 24 26 50 48 48 47 49 45 47 15 17 32 33 34 47 52 49 50 50 51 18 44 47 20 28 48 47 47 19 19 57 22 20 49 26 47 19 51 51 51 45 16 20 16 23 26 24 49 51 0 DK
DCL LLL JPL JDL AWL REL RKL CEL JAL CAL CGL GLC WHC RHC WHC2 BDC CK EJK EAK WAK RMK GBC PEK JLC GHC RC RCK MK DAC JDLK MDK JLC2 DC JJC PCK GRK CGK MSK STK JAK DCC BGC RRC GWK JMR MWK CTK EHK AK CJK SBK JDC MK2 LDC RSK DK

Relative Mutations for 67 Markers

67 Markers Relative Mutations CK EJK EAK WAK GLC RHC WHC2 WHC MDK DAC PCK MSK JLC2 DC GBC GHC RC DCC BGC GWK JMR MWK CTK PCK GRK CJK SBK
1 CK 0 CK
2 EJK 49 0 EJK
3 EAK 49 8 0 EAK
4 WAK 50 5 5 0 WAK
5 GLC 61 65 67 64 0 GLC
6 RHC 61 61 63 60 6 0 RHC
7 WHC2 61 63 65 62 4 4 0 WHC2
8 WHC 65 69 71 68 6 8 6 0 WHC
9 MDK 26 59 59 58 69 65 67 71 0 MDK
10 DAC 66 71 73 70 54 58 54 58 70 0 DAC
11 PCK 20 54 54 55 66 64 64 70 26 71 0 PCK
12 MSK 23 51 53 52 63 61 63 67 25 74 28 0 MSK
13 JLC2 71 70 71 69 55 55 53 57 76 64 68 76 0 JLC2
14 DC 70 70 71 69 54 54 52 56 75 62 67 75 2 0 DC
15 GBC 65 73 74 74 71 69 69 73 58 75 64 66 67 65 0 GBC
16 GHC 62 72 73 73 68 66 66 70 53 72 61 63 66 64 5 0 GHC
17 RC 65 75 76 76 71 69 69 73 58 73 64 66 65 63 6 5 0 RC
18 DCC 26 53 54 54 64 62 62 66 25 64 27 27 70 69 64 61 62 0 DCC
19 BGC 63 68 69 67 39 35 35 39 64 66 62 60 67 67 72 67 72 63 0 BGC
20 GWK 60 70 68 69 30 28 26 32 60 60 59 56 69 69 66 61 66 61 22 0 GWK
21 JMR 60 70 68 69 30 28 26 32 60 60 59 56 69 69 66 61 66 61 22 0 0 JMR
22 MWK 60 70 68 69 30 28 26 32 60 60 59 56 69 69 66 61 66 61 22 0 0 0 MWK
23 CTK 60 67 66 66 28 26 24 28 57 63 63 53 64 64 64 61 64 61 26 18 18 18 0 CTK
24 PCK 20 54 54 55 66 64 64 70 26 71 0 28 68 67 64 61 64 27 62 59 59 59 63 0 PCK
25 GRK 20 54 54 55 66 64 64 70 26 71 2 28 68 67 64 61 64 27 62 59 59 59 63 2 0 GRK
26 CJK 23 48 52 51 58 56 58 62 29 62 24 23 70 69 64 63 64 31 63 60 60 60 55 24 24 0 CJK
27 SBK 17 50 52 49 66 66 66 70 21 65 25 26 71 70 63 60 63 28 67 67 67 67 68 25 25 24 0 SBK
CK EJK EAK WAK GLC RHC WHC2 WHC MDK DAC PCK MSK JLC2 DC GBC GHC RC DCC BGC GWK JMR MWK CTK PCK GRK CJK SBK

Relative Mutations for 111 Markers

111 Markers Relative Mutations JMR MWK CK GBC
1 JMR 0
2 MWK 4 0
3 CK 108 106 0
4 GBC 107 109 120 0

Time-Ordered Phylograms

Another way to visualize the relationships among the testees is by time-ordered (rooted tree) phylograms calculated from relative-mutations matrices. To create time-ordered phylograms, I use the PHYLIP/Neighbor software using the relative-mutations matrix to generate a tree file (*.tre) to be plotted by the TreeView software. (For a description of how I do it, see PHYLIPTreeViewUse.htm.)

Here is a phylogram for the Little/Klein/Cline/Klines who have had 25 markers measured:
This is not a family tree in the usual sense. Only the ones with very short horizontal lines on the right are closely related.

REL is the same as DCL & AWL.
The two Clines, JCC and GLC, are not closely related.
Since PCK is a Kline and AWL is known to descend from a Klein, the lower 6 are probably from an old German Klein family.
Here is a phylogram for the Little/Klein/Cline/Klines who have had SMGF 25 markers measured:

Note the (KPC, WGK) family; it may be part of a larger Klein family involving ALK & JK.
Here is a phylogram for the Little/Klein/Cline/Klines who have had 37 markers measured:

It appears that CEL carries the most ancient markers for his LKY1 family, which includes REL, AWL, LLL, JDL, DCL, RKL, and JPL.
Note the scale in the lower left corner for 1 mutation back to the most recent common ancestor. Vertical distances indicate connections.
From the SNP Y-chromosome notation in http://ycc.biosci.arizona.edu/nomenclature_system/fig1.html for Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP), I estimate the nine SNP mutations back to the most recent common ancestor in Africa to be about 6000 years per SNP mutation, using 50,000 years as the time Homo sapiens sapiens left Africa. There are seven mutations back to the F haplogroup's most recent common ancestor (MRCA) for the Roper/Raper testees, or about 39,000 years. Since there are 7 SNP mutations and 14 STR mutations back to the F haplogroup MCRA, at first thought it would appear that the STR mutations per chromosome over long times happen about twice as fast as the SNP mutations. Thus, for long times into the past, each STR mutation is about 2800 years. The time back to the R1b MRCA is about 7 STR mutations times 2800, or 19,600 years, in the last glacial maximum. (Bryan Sykes, on p. 143 in his book, Adam's Curse, a Future Without Men, states that one should not use raw STR mutation rates to try to relate males who are in different SNP haplogroups. This is because, for males so distantly related, some of the markers could have mutated both positive and negative.)
Click here to join the Little/Klein/Cline/Kline Y-chromosome project.
(Only males with surnames Little, Klein, Cline or Kline)
Also, send data showing your Little/Klein/Cline/Kline ancestry to roperld@vt.edu

Classifying Little/Klein/Cline/Kline Families According to Y-Chromosome Marker Sets

I adopt a classification scheme for the different Little/Klein/Cline/Kline families as determined by the Y-chromosome tests for at least two members of a family. In order of time at which the Y markers were determined, the classification is:

Family Class Abbreviation Participants Comments
Little/KleinY1 LKY1 DCL, LLL, JDL, JPL, AWL, RKL, REL,WBL, BDL, CEL Capt. Daniel Little family
AWL descends from a Klein in Littlestown PA.
Haplogroup R1b1b2
Little/KleinY2 LKY2 JHL, JAL, DCL2, CAL, CGL JHL & JAL descend from a Klein;
Haplgroup J2e1
ClineY1 CY1 GLC, WHC, LDC, RHC, WHC2 WHC's 3rd great-grandfather Joseph and GLC's 2nd great-grandfather Jesse Sr. were siblings. They were both sons of John Cline.
Haplogroup I
KleinY1 KY1 WHK, DRK Haplogroup R1b1b2
KleinY2 KY2 WAK, EJK Haplogroup R1a
Klein/KlineY1 KKY1 RKK, JWK Haplogroup R1b1b2
Kline/ClineY1 KCY1 JCC, RC, PEK, GBC, JLC, GHC Haplogroup G
Klein/Cline/KlineY2 KCY2 KPC, WGK
KPC descends from a Klein. WGK descends from a Kline.
Kline/ClineY3 KCY3 BDC, CK, CC, JHC Haplogroup R1b1b2
ClineY2 CY2 LWC, HDC
ClineY3 CY3 JLC2, DC Haplogroup I

Here is a phylogenetic tree for 37 markers for the LKY1 family:

Only families for which at least two members have had 25 markers measured are classified.

Family Connections for Some of the Participants

Comparison with Other Families

Capt. Daniel Little
Roper Genetics Project
Franklin Genetics Project
L. David & Jeanne Roper BioGeographical Ancestry (BGA) Testing (DNAPrint)
mtDNA haplogroup of L. David Roper and all Female Descendants of His Maternal Line

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